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Here are some interesting uses of enduo in the Septuagint

Genesis 3:21-note The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them.

Comment: God literally clothed Adam and Eve, but in comparison NT figurative uses of enduo (e.g., Gal 3:27-note "have clothed yourselves with Christ") seems to represent a foreshadowing of God's provision of the covering (atonement) of Christ for any of Adam's sinful spiritual children (which is all mankind) who by grace express a personal belief in Christ Jesus, trusting wholly in Him as their propitiatory sacrifice. (cp the OT Mercy Seat in the Holy of holies)

Psalm 132:9 Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness, And let Your godly ones sing for joy.

Comment: What a beautiful description foreshadowing the "clothing" of every NT priest of God (1 Peter 2:9-note), each one having been forever "clothed with righteousness" of Christ Jesus (1 Cor 1:30, cp Isa 61:10, Ro 13:14, cp our future attire in Rev 19:8-note)! Glory!

In the Gospels, enduo is used primarily in a literal sense e.g.

Matthew 6:25 "For this reason I say to you, do not be anxious for your life, as to what you shall eat, or what you shall drink; nor for your body, as to what you shall put on. Is not life more than food, and the body than clothing?

Matthew 22:11 "But when the king came in to look over the dinner guests, he saw there a man not dressed in wedding clothes,

Matthew 27:31 And after they had mocked Him, they took His robe off and put His garments on Him, and led Him away to crucify Him.

Mark 1:6 And John was clothed with camel's hair and wore a leather belt around his waist, and his diet was locusts and wild honey.

Mark 6:9 but to wear sandals; and He added, "Do not put on two tunics."

Mark 15:17 And they dressed Him up in purple, and after weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on Him… 20 And after they had mocked Him, they took the purple off Him, and put His garments on Him. And they led Him out to crucify Him.

Luke 12:22 And He said to His disciples, "For this reason I say to you, do not be anxious for your life, as to what you shall eat; nor for your body, as to what you shall put on.

Luke 15:22 "But the father said to his slaves, 'Quickly bring out the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and sandals on his feet

Jesus uses enduo once in a figurative sense in the Gospels declaring to His disciples…

Luke 24:49-note "And behold, I am sending forth the Promise of My Father upon you; but you are to stay in the city until you are clothed with power (dunamis) from on high."

Comment: Luke uses enduo figuratively describing clothing with spiritual power fulfilled by the coming of the Holy Spirit in Acts 2:1-4. The Power is the Promised Spirit, Who God had promised in the description of the New Covenant in the Old Testament, [Ezekiel 36:27 "I will put My Spirit within you"], promised again in Acts 1:8-note and realized in Acts 2:4 at Pentecost and then in every believer thereafter as described in Ro 8:9-note, Ep 1:13, 14-note]

Comment: Here the indirect middle voice conveys the sense "put on yourselves power from on high as a garment". They are to wait until this experience comes to them, which equates with “the promise of the Father.” Enduo used in this figurative sense is seen in classic Greek writing by Aristophanes who describes an individual as "clothed with audacity," by Homer who describes one as "clothed with strength" and by Plutarch who describes one as "clothed with nobility and wealth".

Paul uses of enduo are all figurative describing the putting on of "ethical, moral or spiritual" garments. And what a "wardrobe" he lays out for believers in his epistles…


Romans 13:12 The night is almost gone, and the day is at hand. Let us therefore lay aside (cast off, drop, fling away, renounce) the deeds of darkness (all the filthy garments of worldliness—that is, everything associated with unrighteousness and evil -- in the context of Col 3:10 this would include lying) and put on the armor of light. (See notes)


Galatians 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.

Comment: This putting on refers to salvation, at which time the Spirit replaced our filthy rags of sin with the righteousness of Christ - this is now and forever our new position before God. He sees us in Christ's righteousness - the theologians refer to this as positional truth = past tense salvation = justification.

Romans 13:14 But put on (our practice = present tense salvation = progressive sanctification - put Him on each morning and every moment of the day - aorist imperative [middle voice = you initiate the action and participate in the result = put Him yourself] ) the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh in regard to its lusts. (See notes)


Ephesians 4:24 and put on (not a command - aorist tense) the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.

Comment: As discussed in the notes there is debate between excellent commentators, some favoring this putting on as indicative of positional truth and others favoring it as calling for this to be our practice - progressive sanctification or present tense salvation.

Colossians 3:10 and have put on (past tense salvation = positional sanctification = our position now and forever in Christ - see our practice in Col 3:12) the new self who is being renewed to a true knowledge according to the image of the One Who created him (See notes)

Colossians 3:12 And so, as those who have been chosen of God (cf notes Eph 1:5), holy and beloved, put on (present tense salvation = progressive sanctification = our practice - a command be clothed [middle voice = clothe yourself] now = aorist imperative) a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience (See notes)


1Thessalonians 5:8 (note) But since we are of the day, let us be sober, having put on (at the time of our new birth = justification = our position = past tense salvation) the breastplate of faith and love, and as a helmet, the hope of salvation.


1Corinthians 15:53 For this perishable must put on (glorification = future tense salvation) the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. 54 But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, "Death is swallowed up in victory.

What a "wardrobe" God has made available for believers! We're the "best dressed" folks in the world and most of us don't even know it! And the best is yet to come for John writes…


Revelation 19:14 (note) And the armies (this is us, those redeemed by the blood of the Lamb) which are in heaven, clothed (enduo) in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him (the Lamb = Faithful and True = the Word of God) on white horses. (Comment: This incredible historical event will occur at the end of the 7 year period, Daniel's Seventieth Week, and marks the defeat of the antichrist and his armies and the inception of Messiah's Millennial Reign)

The garments believers are now wearing (figuratively, spiritually) are a picture of every believer's vital mystical spiritual union with Christ which began at the time of regeneration (the new birth). All believers have been irrevocably, intimately united with Christ at the moment of salvation (past tense salvation = positional sanctification = justification = the new birth). Every believer now stands (our position) before God clothed with Christ's righteousness, complete in Christ.

Thus in Romans 13 Paul writes that

The night (of man's depravity, of this present evil age) is almost gone, and the day (of Christ's return and reign) is at hand. Let us therefore lay aside (cast off, drop, fling away, renounce) the deeds of darkness and put on (enduo) the armor of light (which equates with the protection that practical righteousness and holy living imparts) (Ro 13:12-note)

Paul adds that they are to

Put on (enduo - aorist imperative - do it now! The Spirit will give us the desire and power to obey! cp Php 2:13NLT-note) the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision (forethought, thought in advance) for the flesh in regard to its lusts ("don’t think of ways to indulge your evil desires", NLT)." (Ro 13:14-note)

In short, if we are Christians we have already put on the Lord Jesus Christ as stated in (Gal 3:27) Just as a garment which one puts on envelops the person wearing it and defines his appearance, so the person baptized in Christ is entirely taken up in Christ and in the salvation brought by Him. But this passage in Romans has reference to practical day-to-day, repeated putting on of Christ.

Ray Stedman gives the following illustration: "When I get up in the morning I put on my clothes, intending them to be part of me all day, to go where I go and do what I do. They cover me and make me presentable to others. That is the purpose of clothes. In the same way, the apostle is saying to us (Ro 13:12, 13; 14-see note Ro 13:12, 13; 14), “Put on Jesus Christ when you get up in the morning. Make Him a part of your life that day. Intend that He go with you everywhere you go, and that He act through you in everything you do. Call upon His resources. Live your life IN CHRIST.” (Stedman, Ray C. From Guilt to Glory. Vol 2. p136. Waco, TX: Word, 1978) (Bolding added)

Kent Hughes interprets the putting on of the new self in Eph 4:24 (see note) as follows - "The fact is, we have this new self if we are Christians. We received the old man at birth, and we were given the new man in our heavenly birth. The new man is not our work — it is God’s creation and gift. Our task is not to weave it, but to wear it. Paul is commanding a daily appropriation of that which we already possess… We have our part to do in dressing ourselves with the divine wardrobe, for here clothes do make the man — and the woman! We must daily set aside the rotting garments of the old man. We must formally reject sensuality and selfish pride and materialism and bitterness. We must read the Word and ask God to to renew our minds through the Spirit. We must work out our salvation by doing those things that will develop a Biblical mind. We must put on our new, shining garments of light. We must put on what we are!" (Hughes, R. K.: Ephesians: The Mystery of the Body of Christ. Crossway Books)

Because of their privileged position "as those who have been chosen of God, holy and beloved" Paul calls on the Colossian saints to put this truth into practice and to

put on (enduo - aorist imperative - do it now) a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience… (Col 3:12-note)

In Col 3:10 (note) Paul explained that believers have put on the new man and here in Col 3:12ff he shows them practically how this new man is to live.

Thayer says that put on here in (Col 3:12 [note]) means

to become so possessed of the mind of Christ as in thought, feeling, and action to resemble Him and, as it were, reproduce the life He lived.

And truly, how else is it possible to live out the "put on's" which reflect the lifestyle of the "new self"?


Note there is some duplication of truths discussed in the previous section
Enduo means to put on as a garment, to cause to get into a garment. In the passive it means to be clothed. In the middle voice as used in Colossians 3:10 enduo means to clothe oneself.

In the realm of spiritual warfare, believers are to

Put on (enduo - aorist imperative - do it now - do it decisively - it is urgent! The only way to accomplish this is by rejecting self reliance and relying wholly on the Holy Spirit) the full (not just part of the) armor of God, that you may be able to stand firm against the schemes (orderly, methodical, cunning, deceptive strategies - he knows our weak points) of the devil (Ep 6:11-note)

Later in this same section on spiritual warfare, Paul uses enduo a second time exhorting the saints to

Stand firm (aorist imperative = Calls for immediate attention! Do this now! See above for our need for the Spirit's enabling power.) therefore, having girded your loins with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness. (Eph 6:14- note)

Every believer has put on the breastplate of righteousness when by faith they received Christ and were reckoned righteousness before God. God

made (Christ Jesus) Who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. (2 Co 5:21).

The righteousness of Christ was imputed or placed on our spiritual account so to speak. Having put on this righteousness Paul tells us to stand firm. In other words because we possess this righteousness from God, we can begin to develop and manifest a righteous character in righteous living and such a lifestyle is one piece of our armor in spiritual warfare.

John MacArthur explains that "as believers faithfully live in obedience to and communion with Jesus Christ, His own righteousness produces in them the practical, daily righteousness that becomes their spiritual breastplate. Lack of holiness, on the other hand, leaves them vulnerable to the great enemy of their souls. (MacArthur, J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word)

Even though every believer is clothed with the righteousness of Christ, we must still live so as to manifest integrity and uprightness in our personal life. As has been well said "When a man is clothed in practical righteousness, he is impregnable. Words are no defense against accusation, but a good life is." So if our conscience is void of offense toward God and man, we are less vulnerable to the devil who has no target to shoot at.

Paul applies a military metaphor (breastplate, helmet) to exhort the saints at Thessalonica to be like soldiers who get up each morning with the right attitude (sober–minded, watchful, well-balanced, circumspect, clear-headed) and the right attire that provides proper protection writing that

since we are of the day, let us be sober (marked by sedate, earnestly thoughtful character and demeanor, seriousness of purpose), having put on (enduo) the breastplate of faith and love and as a helmet, the hope of salvation. (see note 1Thessalonians 5:8)

Although the NASB makes this "putting on" sound like past tense event, it is better understood as something each believer is to do.

Young's Literal has "let us be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love…

In other words, we as believers need to be like sentries on guard against a relentless, persistent, deadly foe, making certain that we are armed with all the accoutrements God has made (potentially) available for the spiritual war we will face every day. We need to daily manifest the behavior which is consistent with our position in Christ. Have you put on your breastplate of faith and love this morning? “Faith” is an essential protection against temptations, because it is trust in God’s promises, plans, and truth. Faith is unwavering belief in God’s Word that protects us when the arrows of temptation begin to fly. Love for God is essential and ultimately is manifest in obedience (cf Jn 14:15), which equates with upright behavior which itself is a supernatural shield against spiritual attacks

Paul uses enduo four times in his description of the future hope of glory of believers writing that

this perishable (physical, natural, earthly body which is subject to decay) must put on (enduo) the imperishable, and this mortal must put on (enduo) immortality. But when this perishable will have put on (enduo) the imperishable, and this mortal [part of us, this nature that is capable of dying] will have put on (enduo) immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, "DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory. (1Cor 15:53-54)

Paul uses enduo to picture our redeemed spirits being dressed in glorious redeemed bodies because it is impossible for corruption to inherit incorruption.

Enduo is used 86 times in the Septuagint (abbreviated LXX, Greek translation of Hebrew OT), the first use being in Genesis after the fall, where

Jehovah Elohim made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them. (Ge 3:21)

This is but a shadow of the reality that God would someday kill a substitute to redeem sinners, the redemption price being the shed blood of the sinless Lamb of God, Who made available to guilty, unrighteous sinners a garment of righteousness for those who would place their faith in Him. In Exodus, one of many allusions to putting garments on priests, God says

you shall put the holy garments on (enduo in LXX) Aaron and anoint him and consecrate him, that he may minister as a priest to Me. (Ex 40:13)

In a figurative use we read that

the Spirit came upon (enduo in LXX > "the Spirit clothed Amasai") Amasai (1Chr 12:18)

The Spirit's "clothing" certain people in the OT was temporary empowerment and in this specific case was given to assure David that the Benjamites and Judahites were loyal to him and that the cause was blessed by God. In another interesting figurative use of enduo Solomon prayed

Now therefore arise, O LORD God, to Thy resting place, Thou and the ark of Thy might; let Thy priests, O LORD God, be clothed (enduo in LXX) with salvation and let Thy godly ones rejoice in what is good. (2Chr 6:41)

The Psalmist declares

Bless the LORD, O my soul! O LORD my God, Thou art very great. Thou art clothed (enduo in LXX) with splendor and majesty, covering Thyself with light as with a cloak (Ps 104:1-2)

Let Thy priests be clothed (enduo in LXX) with righteousness and let Thy godly ones sing for joy. (Ps 132:9)

The psalmist is asking God for a godly line of OT priests. How blessed are we in the NT to be the Lord's priests clothed with the robes of righteousness of Christ. May we live it out in His power and for His glory. Amen. In one of the most famous uses of enduo Isaiah records the prophetic description of Messiah writing that

He put on (enduo in LXX) righteousness like a breastplate and a helmet of salvation on His head and He put on garments of vengeance for clothing and wrapped Himself with zeal as a mantle. (Isa 59:17)

Paul drew on this terminology in describing a believer’s spiritual preparation for warding off the attacks of Satan.

I will rejoice greatly in the LORD, My soul will exult in my God for He has clothed (enduo in LXX) me with garments of salvation. He has wrapped me with a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels. (Isa 61:10)

This verse pictures imputed (credited to one's account) righteousness, which is the central teaching of the gospel. When a sinner recognizes he can’t achieve righteousness by works and repents and calls on God, the Lord clothes him with His own righteousness by grace through faith.

Jesus declared to His disciples

behold, I am sending forth the promise of My Father (promised in the OT cf Joel 2:28, Isa 44:3) upon you; but you are to stay in the city until you are clothed (enduo) with power from on high (referring to the Spirit at Pentecost cf Acts 1:8) (Lu 24:49).

To review this section, the verbs translated put off and put on both are aorist tense and indicate a completed past event. When any sinner trusts Christ, at that moment they put off the old self and put on the new. At that moment, the old self has been rendered powerless and the new self is now to be in control (read especially Romans 6 - see notes Romans 6). In Christ the believer has been set free from the dominion and power of "sin". Because of our permanent identification and union with Christ, we now have the power of His Spirit and the responsibility to conduct ourselves as a new man in Christ (this is called sanctification and is alluded to in the next part of this verse). We are not told to feel that these things are true or even to fully understand them. But we are told to live them out by grace through faith. That is what Colossians 3 is all about -- walking the talk. Living out the life that is in us - Christ is us the hope of glory. As we walk in a manner worthy we will grow in the knowledge of God (Col 1:10-note) and in so doing we will come to understand more and more the depth of the truth that we are now in Christ. (see also in Christ)

Guy King…

That poor deformed savage Cali ban, in Shakespeare's Tempest, spoke better than he knew when he said -

"'Ban, 'Ban, Ca-Caliban
Has a new master; get a new man."

When CHRIST is our Saviour and Master we have to put on the new man. May I remind you that "if any man be in Christ he is a new creature," 2Corinthians 5:17?

Being a Christian, he is to dress the part. "The garment of praise," says Isaiah 61:3; "He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness," Isa 61:10.

Some sightseers, wandering about the grounds of a famous castle on an "open" day, came across an old man, evidently, by his old clothes, one of the gardeners, and they asked him, "Is the Duke in residence?" - it was the Duke! Just then he wasn't dressing the part. So far as the Christian uniform is concerned, the Christian soldier must never be in mufti.

The story is told of the thorough-going conversion of an old disreputable blackguard, whose wife and children had been miserably beaten and bruised in his drunken brawls. Everyone in the town knew of old drunken John, unsavoury character that he was. On his conversion, he knew that everything must now be different - he thought of the way he had treated his family; he decided that he must leave his wretched hovel of a house, and find a decent home for them.

On going to the agents, they made it plain to him that they were not going to entrust one of their respectable dwellings to an old reprobate like him. They knew old John. But his answer was, "I think you're making a mistake. I fancy you're confusing me with somebody else. Old John is dead; I'm new John".

Well done! And now he is going to dress the part. It is so with all new-born people of GOD. Whether they are Greek folk, or Jewish, Barbarian, Scythian, slave or free (verse 11), they all dress alike. "Christ is all, and in all." This spiritual suiting is the height of fashion in the circles of Heaven, and the old clothes look so drab beside them. No wonder that Christians are exhorted, "As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance," 1Pe 1:14, when, not knowing any better, you thought yourselves looking very smart. (Guy King. Colossians - Crossing the Border)